28 January 2009
While there's no clear, fool-proof way to decipher your feelings for someone, there are certain ways to make the distinction between love, lust and infatuation clearer for yourself.
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Could it be love?
Could it be love?
Write down everything that you associate with the person you're feeling strongly about. Example words on your brainstorm list could include love, butterflies,holding hands, annoying snoring, gorgeous, etc.
2. Circle each attribute with a different color such as red for lust, yellow for infatuation, and green for love.
3. See which of the three feelings dominates the page. If one doesn't stand out (like if the distribution seems pretty equal), move on to the following steps for more insight.
Or is it lust?
Or is it lust?
Read literature on the topic. Questions about love are timeless questions that have consumed mankind throughout the ages and are a major theme in many scriptures, tales from mythology, and literature. Read the story of David and Bathsheba from the Old Testament, 1st Corinthians from the New Testament, the story of Ali and Fatima, Echo and Narcissus, or Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet.
5. Ask your friends or, if you find it easier, ask a complete and utter stranger, so that you get an honest opinion and an outsider's point of view. Tell that person how you feel, and ask them if it sounds primarily like love, infatuation, or lust.
6. Watch a movie that relates to your situation like "Cruel Intentions" (which is about lust, and wanting what you can't have), "Down to You" (which is about love and leaving it all down to the other person), "How to Lose a Guy in 10 Days" (which is about none of them really but it's about making a mistake and putting it right), "The Notebook," which tells a tale of life-long love and commitment, "The Phantom of the Opera" (which is about both lust and infatuation) and definitely, "Titanic" (which is about holding on to someone forever until you die - that is love - bittersweet love), also, perhaps, "The Fly" (which is about a woman who falls in love with a man who turns into a fly and then goes insane, and yet remains deeply emotionally attached through this agonizing life change - which is love) or High Fidelity (which is about learning what love really is). Yet understand, that movies are fiction that depict idealized rather than realistic love.
* Love is usually pure and a feeling that is mildly possessive but with lots of care, too; infatuation can be detected easily, when a persons says he loves someone, but is unwilling to talk, make any eye contact, or willing to do anything at all, but stay away, remaining shy; and lust can be known if your "love" shifts easily from one person to another, and lust is usually expressed through short physical/emotional (but mostly physical relationships.
* Keep in mind that in most relationships, you're feeling all three (love, infatuation, and lust) all at once, to some degree.
* To help you make tough decisions about your relationship, ask someone you trust who has lots of experience with the kind of relationship you want for yourself. For example: say you want to be happily married to one person for life. If your parents have both been bitterly divorced three times, then they are probably not the ones to talk to. On the other hand, if they are about to celebrate their 50th anniversary of bliss together, then they may be ideal to learn from.
* Lasting relationships are those that are built on love - not infatuation or lust. Imagine the person you love in 50 years when they are old and fat. Would that change how you feel about them? If yes, then what you feel now is most likely lust/infatuation - not love.
* Friendship should also weigh into your decision to commit. In 50 years, if you don't genuinely LIKE your mate, you're going to be miserable.
* Remember that jealousy is not a result of love. It is more likely to be a result of infatuation, insecurity or fear of being alone. Are you in love with being in relationships?
* A major life-changing decision like moving in together, getting engaged or getting married should be a natural step if you love someone. It should not inspire fear.
* Take advantage of the post coital "moment of clarity" to examine your feelings. This is not usually the moment directly after orgasm (where most people are happy with the universe), but 5 or 10 minutes later, when your breathing and heart rate are normal. At this point, does the sex still make you feel closer to that person? Or are you beginning to feel regret and anxiety about what happened? If the latter, then it's most definitely not love but lust.
* Give it some time. Love takes root slowly and grows with time. Infatuation grows into full bloom almost immediately.
* Keep in mind that "True love is neither physical, nor romantic. True love is an acceptance of all that is, has been, will be and will not be." (Unknown)
* Consider what comes to mind when you think about this person. If you are not dating the person, think if you are eager to spend time with them or you just want to watch them from a distance. If you are in a relationship with the person, what do you want most out of the relationship. If you just want to consummate love to the person it is usually lust. True love is when you could love a person without ever "dropping your drawers" so to speak.
* If you're not sure about your feelings or your relationship, take things slowly, introspect. Spend time apart and see how you are feeling while you are away. Do you miss the person? Or are you more attracted to others when you are apart?
* You may also want to consider the fact that it's not always as easy as being one of these three things; often there are a lot of grey areas, the distinctions are blurred, and it is very possible to feel two or even all of these feelings for a person. Just know that lust is not a GOOD thing when it comes to the interest of only one person in the relationship.
- let them be free. It is selfish to blame them for your feelings.
- There are many types of love, for example: a mother-son love is different from a best friend's love, which is different from a romantic love. Don't be ashamed to tell anyone that you love your friends as much as you love anyone else in your life.
- You have to find someone that will suit you, someone you feel comfortable with - not just someone to make love to.
- As a word, love can be found worldwide and is often used to describe compassion and/or emotional attachment. Accepting those you love for who they are is part of love. You also need to learn to accept yourself before you can accept another. If you cannot love your self, how are you to love another?
- Love genuinely. Do not compare your feelings now to what your feelings were when you were with another mate. At times, we can experience rejection.
- Realize that love is a feeling that wikiHow can describe and attempt to assist, but ultimately, you are the one who must take action in order to discover love.
- Do things that make the other person feel good, but do not smother them with gifts and attention.
- Consider some tips about what people in love do.
- People in love are sensitive to each other's needs, and endeavour to meet them even when they do not feel like doing it.
- Men and women may be equal in value but different by nature. People who truly are in love give their mates "space" to develop their potential and find their fulfilment in life.
- Love does not brag. People who are truly in love refrain from rehearsing their good traits just to show off. Bragging in a relationship often is really defensiveness.
- People who are truly in love do not insist that their way is best and demand that their mates give in to them.
- People who are truly in love are considerate of each others feelings and courteous in their actions toward one another. Sadly sarcasm is a way of life for some couples. They ridicule each other, belittle each other and trade jibes with a fury. They may say it is all in fun, but it leaves wounds that will someday become festering sores.
- People who are truly in love look out for their mates' best interests as much as their own. Those in love should be concerned not only about their own individual interests, but about the interests of the other as well.
- People who are truly in love control their anger when the other displeases them. We are all human, and all humans feel anger periodically, but we only express our anger in destructive ways when we counting on someone else to meet our needs.
- People who truly love each other do not take pleasure in their mates' disappointments or failures.
- People who truly love each other treat their mates with absolute trust. Some husbands and wives torment themselves with groundless suspicions. If you look for trouble you will find it every time.
- People who truly love look forward to their relationship growing more meaningful and precious. They have hope. Which is an attitude that happily anticipates the good. It isn't being blind and denies there are problems, but it does look beyond the problems. People who truly love each other do not allow their problems to rob them of their happiness.
- Remember there is no failure in love, because once you tell somebody who you love, that you love him/her, then you have already succeeded in love.
- You must love yourself before you can love another.
- There is always the risk of getting hurt, but that's part of letting yourself fully love and trust some one. Being hurt could be long-lasting and could hurt more than anything in the world.
- Realize what you have while you have it, and care for the person you trust.
- If something comes to an end, try to let go rather than holding on; it's for the best.
- The idea of love is fueled by childhood fantasies. The love shown in movies, as obtainable as it may be, is rare to say the least.
- You just may find your soul-mate sooner than you want to.
- If you feel any doubt of love your partner has for you, make sure that your suspicions are grounded in reality. If you hurt your partner as a result of undeserved mistrust, he/she may end up doubting both your love for them and theirs for you.
- Don't ask for love - you should receive love because your partner wants to give you love - not because you want it from your partner.
- Do not force love - it will come in good time, it will come.
Love is a strange thing. It can be the most amazing feeling in the world, or it can really hurt, but in the end love is something most, if not all of us, will face. While there are many different ways to define love and there are many different ways to love someone (even yourself), here is a general guide to loving.
- Say it. When you say the words "I Love You", they should carry with them the desire to show someone that you love them, not what you simply want to feel. When you say it make sure you really mean it and are willing to do anything for that special person.
- Empathize. Put yourself in someone else's shoes. Rather than impose your own expectations or attempt to control them, try to understand how they feel, where they come from, and who they are. Realize how they could also love you back just as well.
- Love unconditionally. If you cannot love another person without attaching stipulations, then it is not love at all, but deep-seated opportunism (one who makes the most of an advantage, often unmindful of others). If your interest is not in the other person as such, but rather in how that person can enhance your experience of life, then it is not unconditional. If you have no intention of improving that person’s life, or allowing that person to be themselves and accepting them as they are, and not who you want them to be, then you are not striving to love them unconditionally.
- Expect nothing in return. That doesn't mean you should allow someone to mistreat or undervalue you. It means that giving love does not guarantee receiving love. Try loving just for the sake of love. Realize that someone may have a different way of showing his or her love for you, do not expect to be loved back in exactly the same way.
- Realize it can be lost. If you realize that you can lose the one you love, then you have a greater appreciation of what you have. Think how lucky you are to have someone to love.
Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection and attachment. The word love can refer to a variety of different feelings, states, and attitudes, ranging from generic pleasure to intense interpersonal attraction. The word love is both a verb and a noun. This diversity of uses and meanings, combined with the complexity of the feelings involved, makes love unusually difficult to consistently define, even compared to other emotional states.
As an abstract concept, love usually refers to a deep, ineffable feeling of tenderly caring for another person. Even this limited conception of love, however, encompasses a wealth of different feelings, from the passionate desire and intimacy of romantic love to the nonsexual emotional closeness of familial and platonic love to the profound oneness or devotion of religious love. Love in its various forms acts as a major facilitator of interpersonal relationships and, owing to its central psychological importance, is one of the most common themes in the creative arts.
27 January 2009
Nikon has announced the launch of the D80 SLR, a successor to its hugely successful D70.
Featuring Nikon’s own high-resolution image processing engine and a new dedicated processing chip, Nikon claims significantly accelerated performance on all levels and lower power consumption. The camera claims both enhanced automatic operation and more advanced manual features, powered by a 10.2MP DX Format CCD image sensor. This sensor, in addition to the F bayonet lens mount, offers compatibility with Nikon’s range of AF and DX Nikkor lenses.
The new model inherits many of the characteristics of Nikon's existing professional digital SLR cameras, including colour independent analog pre-conditioning and high-precision 12-bit digital image processing algorithms. Nikon's 3D Colour Matrix Metering II is on hand to ensure accurate automatic exposure control, in addition to variable centre-weighted metering and spot metering, exposure compensation and auto exposure bracketing.
Advanced Auto White Balance (AWB) is able to measure the entire frame of each scene and match white balance to the light source. For increased manual control, there is also a choice of six manual settings: Incandescent, Fluorescent, Direct Sunlight, Flash, Cloudy, and Shade. A refined 11-area AF System is based on Nikon's advanced Multi-CAM 1000 AF Sensor Module to improve the speed and precision of focus lock.
Nikon is claiming a start up time of just 0.18 seconds and a shutter release lag time of approximately 80 milliseconds. Continuous shooting at 3 frames per second, in bursts of up to 100 JPEG has been added for action photographers.
The D80 is packaged in a more compact body than its predesecssor, and Nikon has refined the size, layout and operation of all controls to improve ease of use. A viewfinder with 0.94x magnification are combined with a built-in diopter adjustment control to allow photographers to alter the view to suit eyesight. An integrated grid display can also be activated to assist composition.
A new 2.5inch, 230,000-dot high-resolution LCD provides a 170 degree viewing angle from all directions. Images can be previewed using a new dedicated zoom button that helps assess sharpness up to 25 times magnification. The D80 boasts built-in Standard or Advanced Pictmotion slideshow options, including style selections that control transitions and background music. A new RGB histogram display also assists when evaluating exposures.
The menu interface can be customized using a ‘My Menu’ setting. In-camera image editing features have been added, including Nikon’s D-Lighting and Red-eye correction, which are all accessible through a new Retouch menu. A Multiple Exposure option creates a single image from up to three consecutive exposures to offer what Nikon is dubbing “a similar effect of that produced with film.”
Built-in flash employs Nikon's i-TTL flash, while support for the Advanced Wireless Lighting System allows the built-in flash to function as a two-group remote commander providing direct control over wireless SB-800 or SB-600 Speedlights.
Total Imaging System add-ons include the new MB-D80 Multi-Power Battery Pack, the Wireless ML-L3 (IR) Remote Control and MC-DC1 Remote Cord. The D80 comes complete with PictureProject software, enabling easy image importing, editing, organisation and sharing.
The D80 will hit stores this September priced £699.99 for a body only package. A Nikon D80 and 18-70mm lens kit will retail for £899.99 while a Nikon D80 and18-135mm lens kit will cost £949.99.
You can catch a 'first look' preview of the Nikon D80 in the October issue of What Digital Camera, on sale Friday 8th September. Nikon’s new Capture NX software is reviewed in September’s What Digital Camera, which goes on sale this Friday.
KEY FEATURES IN DEPTH
New 10.2 effective megapixel Nikon DX Format CCD image sensor offers a resolution of 3,872 x 2,592 pixels. The camera inherits the advanced imaging processing engine of Nikon professional DSLR cameras. Colour-independent pre-conditioning prior to A/D conversion works in tandem with digital image processing algorithms to produce “natural-looking images that benefit from faithful colour and tone reproduction.”
3D Colour Matrix Metering II automatic exposure control evaluates brightness, colour, contrast, selected focus area and camera-to-subject distance. The system references the data against an expanded onboard database created using data from more than 30,000 actual photographic scenes to accurately calculate the final exposure value for the shot. Variable centre-weighted metering and spot metering centered on the active focus area are also available.
Refined 11-area AF system packs the same number of focus areas available for the professional D2 series into a space-efficient system. Each of the 11 focus areas can be altered individually, the centre sensor can be switched to wide-frame operation for broader coverage and new Auto-area AF mode measures all 11 focus areas. The system automatically determines which are on the primary subject and activates only those areas.
ISO AUTO mode automatically adjusts sensitivity between ISO 100-1600 to maximize available light and achieve optimal exposure. Sensitivity can also be set manually between ISO 100 - 1600 in steps of 1/3 EV, plus HI-0.3, HI-0.7 and HI-1. Three levels of High ISO Noise Reduction are available when shooting at high ISO settings. Long Exposure Noise Reduction is also available when shooting at shutter speeds of 8 seconds or slower.
Seven automated Digital Vari-Programs can be accessed from the Mode Dial. These provide automatic operation optimizing white balance, sharpening, tone, colour, saturation and hue. Options include Auto, Portrait, Landscape, Close Up, Sports, Night Landscape and Night Portrait.
Image sharpening, tone (contrast) compensation, colour mode, saturation and hue adjustment can be controlled by the user-selected choice of Normal, Softer, Vivid, More vivid, Portrait, Custom and Black-and-white (with colour filter options).
A power-up of 0.18 seconds combines with an 80-millisecond shutter time lag (approximate) for faster handling. Continuous shooting performance at 3 frames per second enables the shooting of up to 100 JPEG (FINE M-size or smaller) or up to 6 RAW (NEF) images. Shutter speeds range from 1/4,000 to 30 seconds, in addition to a bulb setting.
In-camera image editing and effects
Creative in-camera effects and editing functions available under the new Retouch menu include:
D-Lighting automatically brings out detail to enhance results while optimizing overall exposure balance.
Red-eye correction automatically detects and compensates for red-eye.
Trim can be used to produce smaller files for easy sharing or greater efficiency for specific end purposes.
Image Overlay merges a pair of selected RAW (NEF) files taken with the D80 to create a new composite image that can be saved in RAW or JPEG format.
Monochrome settings (Black-and-white, Sepia, Cyanotype)
Filter Effects (Skylight, Warm filter, Colour balance)
Multiple Exposure creates a single image within the camera from up to 3 consecutive exposures.
Ergonomics for efficient handling
A large new 2.5inch LCD monitor with a 170 degree viewing angle and new dedicated zoom button assist accurate and easy assessment of sharpness by enabling image preview at up to 25 times magnification (for L-size images). Displays include RGB information as a single histogram display or as separate histograms for each colour channel.
Built-in slideshow options include Advanced Pictmotion shows with style selections that control transitions and background music, that can be viewed on the 2.5-inch LCD, or complete with audio on a television via the supplied AV cable.
My Menu lets users customize menus to display only the items they wish to see.
Integration with Nikon’s Total Imaging System
Compatibility with Nikon’s line-up of AF Nikkor lenses and digital-exclusive DX Nikkor lenses. (When used with the D80 or any DX Format SLR, all AF and DX Nikkor lenses have a picture angle comparable to 1.5x that of 35mm  format.)
Compatibility with the Nikon Creative Lighting System allows the D80 to work with SB-800, SB-600 and SB-R200 Speedlights to deliver the benefits of i-TTL flash.
An optional MB-D80 battery pack is able to run on either one or two EN-EL3e batteries or six AA-size batteries. The pack also features an additional command dial and alternative buttons for shutter release and AE-Lock/AF-Lock that make vertical shooting more comfortable.
Free PictureProject software features an intuitive user interface that provides access to tools for organizing, editing and sharing images. Auto Enhance and other creative functions are available, as are Mail, Slideshow and CD/DVD burning functions. Pictures can be organized using simple drag and drop operation, and can be quickly located by name, keyword, or date.
Nikon has announced the successor to the D100; the D200 features a 10.2MP DX format CCD capable of capturing images 3872 x 2592 pixels in size.
With a body-only price of £1299.99, Nikon is targeting the D200 at serious amateurs or professional photographers looking for a second camera to use alongside high-end cameras such as the D2X. Nikon claims that the camera operation is similar to that of the D2X, incorporating features such as 3D-Colour Matrix Metering II and the 11 selectable focus areas in the newly developed Multi – Cam1000 Autofocus system.
Boasting 0.15-second power-up and 50-millisecond shutter lag time, the D200’s ultra-high-speed continuous shooting mode can capture 37 Jpeg or 22 RAW pictures at a rate of 5fps.
The sensitivity range can be adjusted from 100 to 1600 ISO in 1/3, 1/2 or 1EV increments, with the potential to reach ISO 3200 in Hi-1 mode, while the new Optical Low Pass Filter helps prevent effects such as fringing, shifting and moiré.
Featuring a magnesium alloy body weighing 830g, the D200 includes a durable double-bladed shutter, while the pentaprism viewfinder provides 95% frame coverage and 0.94x magnification.
The camera incorporates the largest top-plate LCD in the industry, and the 2.5-inch back LCD is composed of 230,000 pixels providing a wide 170° viewing angle.
Enhanced battery life is promised from the new EN-EL3e battery that can capture 1800 pictures from a single charge.
Connection to a Global Positioning System is possible with an optional adaptor cord, and remote picture transfer is also possible using the Wireless Transmitter WT-3. Other features include RGB histograms, an X-sync terminal and USB 2.0 image transfer.
The Nikon D200 will be available at the end of December with an 18-70mm lens for £1499.99 or with a 17-55mm lens for £2299.99.
Nikon has also announced other kit, including an 18-200mm optic. The AF-S DX VR-Zoom Nikkor 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6 IF ED lens incorporates improved Vibration Reduction (VR) technology.
Nikon claims that this compact and lightweight lens can produce sharp photographs using shutter speeds four times slower than a non-VR lens, making it suitable for shooting in a range of lighting conditions.
Compensating for camera shake, VR Normal Mode includes automatic panning and automatic tripod detection, while VR Active Mode is designed to reduce the effect of pronounced vibration when shooting in unsteady conditions.
Quiet focusing is promised from the Silent Wave Motor (SWM) and the lens can focus 50cm from the subject. Constructed from 16 elements in 12 groups, the lens includes two ED glass and three aspherical elements, designed to reduce chromatic aberration and distortion, while retaining contrast and resolution.
The AF-S DX VR-Zoom Nikkor 18-200mm f/3.5-5.6 lens will be available at the end of December for £549.99.
Two flash units have also been announced. The SB-R200 Remote Speedlight and SU-800 commander Unit are new additions to Nikon’s Creative Lighting System, designed for macro photography.
The SB-R200 Speedlight can be incorporated in multiple lighting set-ups and controlled by the SB-800 or SB-600 units in Master mode. Alternatively it can be attached to a Nikon digital SLR with built-in Speedlight capabilities (such as the Nikon D200, D70s or D70) for photographing small subjects.
The SU-800 can be used for metering and triggering Speedlights in multi-lighting situations. An LCD panel can be used for manually adjusting the output of each unit, and a one-touch switch automates exposures of small subjects accurately.
The SB-R200 will retail for £169.99, Nikon has yet to confirm a price for the SU-800.
Two Macro lighting kits are also available. The Nikon Close-up Speedlight Commander Kit retails for £549.99 and includes the SU-800, two SB-R200 units, lens adaptors and filters. Meanwhile, the Nikon Close-up Remote Kit SB-R1 costs £379.99 and includes two SB-R200 units along with a selection of adaptor rings and filters.
For more information log onto www.nikon.co.uk or call 0800 230220.
Nikon D200 Specifications
RGB CCD, 23.6 x 15.8mm; total pixels: 10.92 million
Image Size (pixels)
3,872 x 2,592 [L], 2,896 x 1,944 [M], 1,936 x 1,296 [S]
ISO Sensitivity (Recommended Exposure Index)
100 to 1600 in steps of 1/3, 1/2 or 1 EV with additional settings up to 1 EV over 1600
CompactFlash™ (CF) Card (Type I and II) and Microdrive™
Compressed NEF (RAW): 12-bit compression, JPEG: JPEG baseline-compliant
Exif 2.21, Compliant DCF 2.0 and DPOF
Auto (TTL white balance with 1,005-pixel RGB sensor), six manual modes with fine-tuning, colour temperature setting, preset white balance, white balance bracketing possible (2 to 9 frames in increments of 1, 2 or 3)
2.5-in., 230,000-dot, low-temperature polysilicon TFT LCD with brightness adjustment
1) Full frame 2) Thumbnail (4 or 9 segments) 3) Zoom 4) Slideshow 5) RGB histogram indication 6) Shooting data 7) Highlight point display 8) Auto image rotation
Card format, All photographs delete, Selected photographs delete
Can be selected from NTSC and PAL
USB 2.0(Hi-speed) (mini-B connector); mass storage and PTP connectable; FTP file transfer and PTP/IP camera control/file transfer is also available with optional WT-3 (IEEE 802.11b/g); CF card slot Type II: supports firmware updates via CF cards
Up to 36 characters of alphanumeric text input available with LCD monitor and multi-selector; stored in Exif header
Nikon F mount (with AF coupling and AF contacts)
Equivalent in 35mm  format is approx. 1.5 times lens focal length
Fixed eye-level pentaprism; built-in diopter adjustment (-2.0 to +1.0m-1)
Type-B BriteView Clear Matte screen Mark II with superimposed focus brackets and On-Demand grid lines
Viewfinder Frame Coverage
Approx. 95% (vertical & horizontal)
Approx. 0.94x with 50mm lens at infinity; -1.0m-1
Focus indications, Metering system, AE/FV lock indicator, Flash sync indicator, Shutter speed, Aperture value, Exposure/Exposure compensation indicator, ISO sensitivity, Exposure mode, Flash output level compensation, Exposure compensation, Number of remaining exposures
TTL phase detection by Nikon Multi-CAM 1000 autofocus module with AF-assist illuminator (approx. 0.5m to 3.0m) Detection range: EV -1 to +19 (ISO 100 equivalent, at normal temperature: 20°C/68°F)
Instant single-servo AF (S); continuous-servo AF (C); manual (M); predictive focus tracking automatically activated according to subject status in continuous-servo AF
Normal: 11 areas; single area or group can be selected; Wide: focus area can be selected from 7 areas
AF Area Mode
1) Single Area AF 2) Dynamic Area AF 3) Group Dynamic AF 4) Dynamic area AF with closest subject priority
Focus can be locked by pressing shutter-release button halfway (single-servo AF) or by pressing AE-L/AF-L button
Exposure Metering System
Three-mode through-the-lens (TTL) exposure metering.
1) 3D Colour Matrix Metering II (type G and D lenses); colour matrix metering II (other CPU lenses); colour matrix metering available with non-CPU lenses if user provides lens data; metering performed by 1,005-segment RGB sensor.
2) Centre-weighted: Weight of 75% given to 6, 8, 10, or 13mm dia. circle in centre of frame.
3) Spot: Meters 3mm dia. circle (about 2.0% of frame) centred on active focus area (on centre focus area when non-CPU lens is used)
Exposure Metering Range (ISO 100, f/1.4 lens, 20°C/68°F)
1) EV 0 to 20 (3D Colour Matrix or centre-weighted metering)
2) EV 2 to 20 (spot metering)
Exposure Meter Coupling
Combined CPU and AI
Programmed Auto [P] with flexible program; Shutter-Priority Auto [S]; Aperture Priority Auto [A]; Manual [M]
±5 EV in increments of 1/3, 1/2 or 1 EV
Auto Exposure Lock
Luminosity locked at detected value with AE-L/AF-L button
Auto Exposure Bracketing
2 to 9 exposures in increments of 1, 1/2 or 1/3
1) Single frame shooting mode 2) Continuous low speed (CL) shooting mode: 1-4 frames per second 3) Continuous high-speed shooting mode: 5 frames per second 4) Self-timer shooting mode 5) Mirror-up mode
Electronically-controlled vertical-travel focal plane shutter, 30 to 1/8000 sec. in steps of 1/3, 1/2 or 1 EV, bulb
X-contact only; flash synchronization at up to 1/250 sec.
1) TTL: TTL flash control by 1,005-pixel RGB sensor
Built-in Speedlight: i-TTL balanced fill-flash or standard i-TTL flash (spot metering or mode dial set to [M]). SB-800, SB-600 or SB-R200: i-TTL balanced fill-flash for digital SLR and standard i-TTL flash for digital SLR.
2) Auto aperture: Available with SB-800 with CPU lens.
3) Non-TTL Auto: Available with Speedlights such as SB-800, 80DX, 28DX, 28, 27, and 22s.
4) Range-priority manual; available with SB-800.
Flash Sync Mode
1) Front-curtain Sync (normal sync), 2) Red-eye Reduction, 3) Red-eye Reduction with Slow Sync, 4) Slow Sync, 5) Rear-curtain Sync
Manual pop-up with button release; Guide number (ISO 100, m/ft and 20°C/68°F): approx. 12/39 (manual 13/42)
-3 to +1 EV in increments of 1/3 or 1/2 EV
Standard ISO hot-shoe contact with safety lock provided
ISO 519 standard terminal
Electronically controlled timer with 2 to 20 seconds duration
Depth of Field Preview
When CPU lens is attached, lens aperture can be stopped down to value selected by user (A and M modes) or value selected by camera (P and S modes)
Via 10-pin Remote Cord MC-30/36 (optional) or Wireless Remote Control WT-3 (optional)
NMEA 0183 (Ver. 2.01) interface standard supported with 9-pin D-sub cable (optional) and GPS Adapter Cord MC-35 (optional)
One Rechargeable Li-ion Battery EN-EL3e, MB-D200 battery pack (optional) with one or two rechargeable Nikon EN-EL3e Li-ion batteries or six AA alkaline (LR6), NiMH (HR6), lithium (FR6) batteries, or ZR6 nickel-manganese AA batteries, AC Adapter EH-6 (optional)
1/4 in. (ISO 1222)
Dimensions (W x H x D)
Approx. 147 x 113 x 74mm (5.8 x 4.4 x 2.9 in.)
Approx. 830g (1 lbs 13 oz) without battery, memory card, body cap, or monitor cover
Rechargeable Li-ion Battery EN-EL3e, Quick Charger MH-18a, Video Cable, USB Cable UC-E4, Strap, Body cap, Eyepiece Cap DK-5, Rubber Eyecup DK-21, LCD monitor cover BM-6, PictureProject CD-ROM
Multi-Power Battery pack MB-D200, Wireless Transmitter WT-3, Semi-soft case D200, Magnifying Eyepiece DK-21M, Remote cord MC-36/30, GPS Adapter Cord MC-35, AC Adapter EH-6, Speedlight SB-800/SB-600/SB-R200, Nikon Capture 4 (Ver. 4.4)
- Supplied accessories may differ in each country or area.
Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge" or "knowing") is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding of how the physical world works. Using controlled methods, scientists collect data in the form of observations, records of observable physical evidence of natural phenomena, and analyze this information to construct theoretical explanations of how things work. Knowledge in science is gained through research. The methods of scientific research include the generation of hypotheses about how natural phenomena work, and experimentation that tests these hypotheses under controlled conditions. The outcome or product of this empirical scientific process is the formulation of theory that describes human understanding of physical processes and facilitates prediction.
Lavoisier says, "... the impossibility of separating the nomenclature of a science from the science itself is owing to this, that every branch of physical science must consist of three things: the series of facts which are the objects of the science, the ideas which represent these facts and the words by which these ideas are expressed."
A broader modern definition of science may include the natural sciences along with the social and behavioral sciences, as the main subdivisions of science, defining it as the observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena. However, other contemporary definitions still place the natural sciences, which are closely related with the physical world's phenomena, as the only true vehicles of science.
What happens to the energy that powered the great bio-machine that is a human being?
Well, if we are to believe the Law of Energy Conservation (The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be neither destroyed nor created and that it is the same in a closed system. Energy that is absorbed into a system must always equal to the energy released.), and we are to believe the widely held notion that a human is more than a temporary animate object, we have to question.. where does the energy or "soul" go, after physical life ends?
I believe that when the physical mechanism of a human body ends its physical function, the energy which once animated our thoughts, emotions, sensory perceptions and motor skills seeks a like 'substance' of higher volume and density. Where there are myriad sources of energy on earth, the far greater sources of these things exist beyond the atmosphere, in this solar system and beyond. It is my contention that the energy is drawn toward these higher concentrations of energy, leaving the atmosphere, and thus leaving earth, taking with it the combined energy-based echo of our personal experiences in the form of familiar pathways said energy has traveled during its time as a human power source.
Though energy cannot be created or destroyed, it can be transformed. And that will be covered at a later time, in posts on Afterlife, "Ghosts," and Reincarnation.
What alternate theories does this help to explain?
1) It may explain why many religions perceive the 'next world' as being above us.
2) It allows for the existence of a "soul."
3) It coincides with Albert Einstein's belief in an afterlife/soul, which he also reportedly linked to the law of energy conservation.
Wanita Yang Menolak Perkahwinan
Sepertimana yang diberitakan kepada kita oleh akhbar Berita Harian, hari ini terdapat segolongan wanita yang menolak perkahwinan. Antara sebabnya ialah kerana memandang perkahwinan sebagai satu bebanan yang menyekat kebebasan. Bila berkahwin, kuasa mutlak dalam menentukan hidup mula berubah dan terpikul pula dengan kerja-kerja mengurus rumahtangga dan anak-anak.
Justeru itu ramai yang lebih rela menjadi andartu walaupun pada hakikatnya, ianya tidak dapat memberi kebahagiaan pada jiwa. Ada juga yang tidak berkahwin disebabkan terlalu memilih calon yang sekufu dan ada yang tidak sempat memikirkan perkahwinan kerana terlalu sibuk dengan tugas-tugas dan kerjaya masing-masing.
Kami akan menceritakan tentang kerugian yang dialami oleh wanita yang tidak mahu bekahwin; tetapi bukan kepada wanita yang tidak berkahwin kerana tiada jodoh. Kalau sudah tidak ada jodoh, wanita tersebut tidak boleh dipersalahkan kerana sudah takdir menentukan demikian. Masalahnya sekarang, terdapat wanita yang mempunyai peluang untuk berkahwin tetapi menolak dengan alasan-alasan sepertimana yang disebutkan di atas tadi.
Perkembangan tentang wanita yang tidak gemar berkahwin bukan sahaja berlaku di dalam masyarakat bukan Islam tetapi juga berlaku di kalangan masyarakat Islam. Sikap demikian bukan sahaja bertentangan dengan kehendak ajaran Islam yang menggalakkan perkahwinan tetapi juga bertentangan dengan fitrah semulajadi manusia yang hidupnya memerlukan pasangan. Bahkan sunnatullah kejadian manusia, ada lelaki dan ada wanita yang saling memerlukan antara satu sama lain. Ibarat talian elektrik yang memerlukan positif dan negatif untuk melahirkan cahaya.
Di Malaysia, walaupun terdapat di dalam masyarakat Islam sikap memilih hidup membujang tetapi tidak begitu berleluasa sepertimana di barat. Walaupun demikian, pada pandangan Islam, orang yang tidak berkahwin dianggap jelek. Menyerupai para pendita Kristian. Golongan ini juga tidak akan mendapat kesempurnaan dalam agama dan mengalami kerugian di dunia dan di akhirat. Kejelekan tidak berkahwin khususnya bagi kaum wanita, adalah lebih banyak berbanding dengan lelaki. Kerana umumnya bagi kaum wanita, pintu syurga lebih banyak bermula dan berada di sekitar rumahtangga, suami dan anak-anak.
Amat mudah bagi kaum wanita untuk mendapat maqam solehah dan menjadi ahli syurga di akhirat.
Ini berdasarkan sabda Rasulullah: "Sekiranya seorang wanita dapat melakukan empat perkara iaitu sembahyang lima waktu, puasa di bulan Ramadhan, menjaga maruah dan taat kepada suami maka masuklah syurga mana-mana yang ia kehendaki."
Sekiranya seorang wanita itu tidak berkahwin, ia tidak akan dapat mencapai kesempurnaan pada maqam yang keempat. Walau sehebat mana sekalipun ia bersembahyang, berpuasa dan menjaga maruah, wanita yang tidak berkahwin tidak akan mendapat kelebihan pada mentaati suami. Sedangkan kelebihan mentaati suami mengatasi segala-galanya bagi seorang wanita, sehinggakan redha Allah pun bergantung kepada redha suami.
Selain daripada itu di antara kelebihan wanita yang berkahwin bahawa ia akan diberi pahala seperti pahala jihad fisabilillah (berjuang di jalan Allah) di kala mengandung. Apabila ia menyusukan anak maka setiap titik air susu akan diberi satu kebajikan. Berjaga malam kerana mengurus anak akan diberi pahala seperti membebaskan 70 orang hamba. Wanita yang berpeluh kerana terkena bahang api ketika memasak untuk keluarganya akan dibebaskan daripada neraka. Bagi wanita yang mencuci pakaian suaminya akan diberi 1000 pahala dan diampuni 2000 dosa. Lebih istimewa lagi ialah bagi wanita yang tinggal di rumah kerana mengurus hal-hal berkaitan anak-anak akan dapat tinggal bersama-sama Rasulullah saw di syurga kelak. Bahkan wanita yang rela dijimak oleh suami juga akan mendapat pahala dan lebih hebat lagi bagi wanita yang mati kerana bersalin akan mendapat pahala seperti pahala syahid.
Semua kelebihan-kelebihan ini tidak akan dapat diperolehi bagi wanita yang menolak perkahwinan. Malahan kedudukan mereka di dunia akan selalu berada di dalam fitnah dan di akhirat menjadi golongan yang rugi. Oleh itu wanita dianjurkan berkahwin apabila telah menemui pasangan yang sekufu. Yang dimaksudkan sekufu yang utama ialah dari segi iman, walaupun lelaki tersebut telah berkahwin.
Sabda Rasulullah saw: "Apabila datang kepada kamu lelaki yang beragama dan berakhlak maka kahwinlah dia, kalau tidak akan timbul fitnah dan kebinasaan.
Para sahabat bertanya, "Bagaimana kalau ia telah berkahwin?" Jawab baginda, "Kahwinilah juga ia (diulang sebanyak tiga kali)." Begitulah besarnya pahala bagi wanita yang berkahwin. Tidak perlu bersusah-payah untuk keluar rumah seperti kaum lelaki atau berslogan seperti kebanyakan wanita hari ini. Hanya dengan duduk di rumah sebagai seorang isteri dan ibu sudah memperolehi pahala yang banyak. Kalau suami redha dengan perlakuan seorang isteri itu maka akan terus masuk syurga tanpa melalui kesukaran. Nikmat ini tidak akan dapat diperolehi oleh wanita yang menolak perkahwinan kerana dia telah menolak untuk menjadi calon wanita solehah yang berada di bawah naungan suami.
Membaca Bismillah setiap kali melakukan sesuatu pekerjaan atau perbuatan sebenarnya memberi kebaikan yang sangat banyak. Allah sendiri memerintahkan para malaikat supaya mencatat pahala bagi umat manusia yang membaca Bismillah.
Seseorang yang membaca Bismillah sebanyak 21 kali ketika hendak tidur, akan aman dariapda gangguan syaitan, kecurian, maut yang mendadak dan bala. Sementara pasangan yang membacanya ketika hendak berjimak, akan melahirkan anak yang soleh dan bagi ibu bapanya kebajikan sejumlah tarikan nafas anak itu.
Membaca 41 kali Bismillah ke telingan orang yang pengsan, insya Allah dia akan segera sedar. Membaca 313 kali Bismillah serta 100 kali selawat ke atas Nabi SAW pada waktu pagi hari Ahad sewaktu matahari terbit dengan menghadap kiblat, insya Allah akan mendapat rezeki yang tidak terduga.
Bagi ibu bapa yang mempunyai anak yang bebal, eloklah dibaca Bismillah sebanyak 786 kali, kemudian ditiupkan pada air lalu diberi minum anak itu selama tujuh hari pada saat matahari terbit, insya Allah lenyaplah kebebebalannya. Perkara yang sama juga dilakukan kepada adik-beradik, suami, isteri atau sesiapa yang dimaksudkan.
Sesiapa yang membaca 50 kali Bismillah di hadapan orang orang zalim, akan tunduk dan takutlah orang zalim itu. Bagi perempuan yang hamil, tulislah 61 kali kalimah Bismillah hingga akhirnya dengan huruf Arab di atas kertas putih lalu sisipkannya ke perut wanita itu, insya Allah hidup anak yang dikandung itu.
Mereka yang berniaga, bacalah 786 kali di hadapan dagangannya lalu dihembuskan selama tujuh hari. Insya Allah dengan izin Allah akan majulah perniagaannya.